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September 15, 2008, 9:39 PM CT

Poor weight loss after gastric bypass surgery

Poor weight loss after gastric bypass surgery
Individuals with diabetes and those whose stomach pouches are larger appear less likely to successfully lose weight after gastric bypass surgery, according to a report in the recent issue of Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery is the most common bariatric procedure in North America, according to background information in the article. During the procedure, surgeons create a smaller stomach pouch that restricts food intake and bypasses large sections of the digestive system. "When performed in high-volume centers and with a low rate of complications, gastric bypass provides sustained and meaningful weight loss, significant improvement in quality of life, improvement or resolution of obesity-associated comorbidities and extended life span," the authors write. "However, 5 percent to 15 percent of patients do not lose weight successfully, despite perceived precise surgical technique and regular follow-up".

Guilherme M. Campos, M.D., and colleagues at the University of California, San Francisco, examined data from 361 patients who underwent gastric bypass at one institution between 2003 and 2006. Poor weight loss was defined as losing 40 percent or less of excess body weight after 12 months and good weight loss as losing more than 40 percent of excess weight.........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


August 13, 2008, 1:06 AM CT

Overweight children at significant risk for pre-diabetes

Overweight children at significant risk for pre-diabetes
A study by researchers at the University of Southern California (USC) found that overweight Hispanic children are at significant risk for pre-diabetes, a condition marked by higher than normal blood glucose levels that are not yet high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. The persistence of pre-diabetes during growth is associated with progression in risk towards future diabetes, according to the study, which will be published in an upcoming issue of the journal Diabetes, and is now available online.

With a population of more than 35 million, Hispanics are the largest and fastest growing minority group in the United States. Despite the fact that Hispanics are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes, few previous studies have looked at physiological causes of the disease within this population.

Researchers led by Michael I. Goran, Ph.D., professor of preventive medicine, physiology and biophysics and pediatrics, and director of the USC Childhood Obesity Research Center at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, followed a cohort of 128 overweight Hispanic children in East Los Angeles. The children were tested over four consecutive years for glucose tolerance, body mass index, total body fat and lean mass and other risk factors for type 2 diabetes. The study found that an alarming 13% of the children had what the scientists termed "persistent pre-diabetes".........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


July 30, 2008, 0:02 AM CT

Bariatric patients have 65% lower chance of complications at top hospitals

Bariatric patients have 65% lower chance of complications at top hospitals
Bariatric surgery patients treated at highly rated hospitals have, on average, a 65 percent lower chance of experiencing serious complications in comparison to patients who undergo surgery at poorly rated hospitals as per a research studyreleased recently by HealthGrades, the nations leading independent healthcare ratings organization. As part of the study, the quality ratings of hospitals performing bariatric surgery in 17 states became available today at www.healthgrades.com.

HealthGrades' third annual Bariatric Surgery Trends in American Hospitals study, which reviewed bariatric surgical outcomes at every hospital that performed them in 17 states, also observed that the complication rate for these surgeries continues to rise, increasing six percent from 2004 to 2006. One possible reason: lower volume facilities have higher complication rates.

Bariatric surgery is a general term describing several types of weight loss procedures. HealthGrades study analyzed the outcomes of the most common, including traditional open surgical gastric bypass procedures as well as newer, less invasive procedures such as "lap-banding" and laparoscopic gastric bypass.

Complications linked to gastric bypass surgery accounted for the highest rise in complications, increasing 17 percent. Comparatively, complications from less invasive laparoscopic surgery increased by just more than one percent. Complications linked to bariatric surgery include heart attack, kidney failure, stroke and post-surgical infections.........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


Sun, 20 Jul 2008 22:17:54 GMT

Fingerfood

Fingerfood
How to balance your snack with your Dom Perignon? The answer is a charming little plate with a ring that fits right on your finger. Now you can balance your glass and your hors d''ouevres, and look positively in control the whole time. Genius!

Posted by: Gerard      Read more     Source


July 16, 2008, 8:28 PM CT

People only eat 1 when the chips are brown

People only eat 1 when the chips are brown
Chips on the left are from potatoes infected with the zebra chip disease, which alters the sugar levels and causes the sugar to carmelize and give a burned appearance, according to Dr. Don Henne, Texas AgriLife Research assistant research scientist.

Credit: (Texas AgriLife Research photo by Kay Ledbetter)
Dr. Don Henne isn't wasting his degree when he's standing by the deep fryer waiting for potato slices to turn brown. He's conducting research that will help the potato industry and consumers.

Henne, an assistant research scientist in the Texas AgriLife Research plant pathology program in Amarillo, is one of a number of who are trying to find answers about zebra chip. Zebra chip is the latest disease to plague the potato industry, particularly those in the chipping business.

Dr. Charlie Rush, AgriLife Research plant pathologist and leader of the program, began working on the project at the request of local producers in early 2007. His work later became a part of the Zebra Chip State Initiative through the Texas Department of Agriculture.

The initiative brought together scientists from throughout the state and country to try to find answers for zebra chip, Rush said.

"When we first began working on it, the pathogen and vector were unknown," he said. "Only recently have scientists began pinning those down".

Rush said Henne was brought into the program in May because of his experience and background. His primary responsibility is to help understand the factors that impact disease onset and spread. Zebra chip is a disease that alters the sugar levels in the potato, Henne said. The sugar caramelizes and turns the chip brown when it is fried, giving it an off taste and burnt appearance. While it is not harmful, it is a cosmetic and taste concern for consumers.........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


Tue, 08 Jul 2008 22:24:07 GMT

United States Of Obesity 2008

United States Of Obesity 2008
Percentage of obese adult population in the USA.

Posted by: Gerard      Read more     Source


July 1, 2008, 9:56 PM CT

Making more bone and less fat

Making more bone and less fat
Dr. Xingming Shi, bone biologist at the Medical College of Georgia Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics.

Credit: Phil Jones

A small protein may have a big role in helping you make more bone and less fat, researchers say.

"The pathways are parallel, and the idea is if you can somehow disrupt the fat production pathway, you will get more bone," says Dr. Xingming Shi, bone biologist at the Medical College of Georgia Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics.

He's found the short-acting protein GILZ appears to make this desirable shift and wants to better understand how it does it with the long-term goal of targeted therapies for osteoporosis, obesity and maybe more.

"Osteoporosis and obesity are two major public health problems, but people have no idea whether they have a connection," says Dr. Shi. Bone and fat do have a common source: both are derived from mesynchymal stem cells. Bone loss and fat gain also tend to happen with age and with use of the powerful, anti-inflammatory steroid hormones glucocorticoids. "When you age, your bone marrow microenvironment changes; the balance between the bone and fat pathway is broken," says Dr. Shi, a faculty member in the MCG Schools of Medicine and Graduate Studies. "You have more fat cells accumulate".

"The bones of elderly people or those who take glucocorticoids are yellow inside instead of red," he says. And it gets worse: in a classic vicious cycle, the more fat, the more cytokines that stimulate production of bone-destroying osteoclasts and inhibit bone-forming osteoblasts. He recently showed that even the stem cells change with age: their numbers and their ability to differentiate decrease.........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


June 19, 2008, 9:11 PM CT

Weight gain increases risk of chronic kidney disease

Weight gain increases risk of chronic kidney disease
Healthy individuals who gain weight, even to a weight still considered normal, are at risk for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD), as per a research studyappearing in the September 2008 issue of the Journal of the American Society Nephrology (JASN). The study suggests that CKD should be added to the list of conditions that are linked to weight gain, including diabetes and hypertension.

Research has shown that obesity is associated with an increased risk of CKD, but no studies have looked at the effects of weight gain within the "normal" range of an individual's body mass index. To investigate, Drs. Seungho Ryu and Yoosoo Chang of the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital in Seoul, Korea, and their colleagues conducted a prospective study of individuals who were of a healthy weight and had no known risk factors for chronic kidney disease.

In Korea, all workers participate in either annual or biennial health exams, as mandatory by Korea's Industrial Safety and Health Law. As a result, the researchers had access to clinical data from thousands of individuals. For this study, they included 8,792 healthy men who participated in the health exams in 2002.

The scientists discovered a U-shaped association between weight change and development of CKD. Men who lost or gained a lot of weight (more than 0.75 kg per year) had the highest risk of developing CKD. Those whose weight changed minimally (within a range of -0.25 to <0.25 kg per year) had the lowest risk, even when factors such as body mass index, age, exercise, lipids, and blood glucose levels were taken into account. The authors note that their finding of an increased risk linked to weight loss should be interpreted with caution. Many factors may have complicated the results. For example, men with the most weight loss may have been less healthy at the start of the study.........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


June 10, 2008, 9:22 PM CT

Gene linked to adult-onset obesity

Gene linked to adult-onset obesity
Scientists at the University of Minnesota have discovered a gene that may provide a clue as to why obesity rates increase with age. The research was published recently in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Scientists in the lab of Kevin Wickman, Ph.D., associate professor of pharmacology at the University of Minnesota Medical School, removed a single gene from mice as part of a research study that's ongoing to understand how the brain controls heart function. While some cardiac deficiencies were detected in these mice, the scientists unexpectedly observed that these mice exhibited a predisposition to adult-onset obesity.

"This was not an outcome we expected, but now we have an animal model that may provide new insight into human obesity," said Wickman, co-author of the article.

By examining closely where this gene, termed Girk4, is expressed in the body, the scientists found especially high levels in the hypothalamus, a brain region involved in regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Wickman speculated that disruption of normal function in the hypothalamus may underlie the obesity seen in the mutant mice, but he acknowledges that more studies are needed to understand where and how this gene works, and consequently, why mice missing this gene develop obesity.........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


May 21, 2008, 9:43 PM CT

A Foamy Drink, and the Future of Food

A Foamy Drink, and the Future of Food
Tejate
What the Long, Strange Trip of Tejate, a Maize-based Mexican Drink, reveals about a Worldwide Agricultural System at a Crossroads.

Michael Pollan's recent bestseller The Omnivore's Dilemma revealed to millions of readers the centrality, and dangers, of commodity corn in the modern industrialized agriculture system as developed in the United States. The "modern varieties" of corn, which are low in diversity, are now taking over the very birthplace of the crop, Southern Mexico, where it is known as maize. In their paper for the new issue of Current Anthropology, "Food Globalization and Local Diversity: The Case of Tejate, a Traditional Maize and Cacao Beverage from Oaxaca, Mexico" authors Daniela Soleri, David Cleveland, and Flavio Aragon-Cuevas trace the unique history of the ancient drink, and show how it could be the harbinger for the future of agriculture and food variety. In this indigenous drink is contained a central irony of globalization, for the very set of forces that threaten to destroy tejate may in the end save both the drink and the diverse varieties of maize.

Southern Mexico, tejate's birthplace, holds an august position in the history of agriculture. In addition to maize, three species of squash, chile, common bean, and avocado were domesticated here. Traditional "farmers' varieties" of crops have met an enormous challenge in the worldwide "Green Revolution" (launched in Mexico, incidentally) of the twentieth century, which brought down food prices, but at the cost of crop diversity-including among maize varieties. The modern varieties of maize have already won out in the commercial production of tortillas, among other staples. Traditional foods that continue to require the more diverse tastes and qualities of farmers' varieties are the only bulwark against the extinction of those varieties and their globally important genetic diversity. Tejate, the drink of work, parties, festivities, and family meals in Oaxaca, remains linked to the maize harvest, and has remained the domain of traditional farmers' varieties of maize. Through field work in two communities in Oaxaca, Soleri and her co-authors observed that tejate is in its steepest decline in the modern community, where maize diversity and traditional foods are also waning. The more traditional community, conversely, makes tejate more often and maintains a wider diversity of maize types for this and other traditional foods.........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


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