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August 28, 2007, 9:25 PM CT

Circulating fats kill transplanted pancreas cells

Circulating fats kill transplanted pancreas cells
Dr. Roger Unger led research that shows dietary restrictions or other strategies to limit fat formation might make pancreatic cell transplants more effective.
Dietary restrictions or other strategies that limit fat formation might make pancreatic cell transplants more effective, UT Southwestern Medical Center scientists report.

Using animal models, the scientists discovered that pancreatic islet cells transplanted into the liver fail not only because of immune rejection, but also because of overexposure to toxic fats that are synthesized by the surrounding liver cells and flood the pancreatic transplants. Their findings are reported in the recent issue of the journal Diabetes

To date, a few hundred people have received transplants of complexes of pancreatic cells, called islets. The islets are implanted in the liver, where they at first make insulin, but over months or years their production often declines.

By understanding how fat affects these cells, maybe we can improve islet transplant and make it last a bit longer, said Dr. Roger Unger, professor of internal medicine at UT Southwestern and senior author of the study.

During islet transplantation, the pancreatic cell complexes are injected into a large vein that feeds into the liver, where they lodge. Cells within the islets, called beta cells, then produce insulin. The person receiving the transplant must take anti-rejection drugs.........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


August 28, 2007, 9:23 PM CT

Treating diabetes during pregnancy and childhood obesity

Treating diabetes during pregnancy and childhood obesity
Treating diabetes during pregnancy can break the link between gestational diabetes and childhood obesity, according to a Kaiser Permanente study featured in the recent issue of Diabetes Care.

The largest study of its kind, this research shows that the risk of childhood obesity rises in tandem with a pregnant womans blood sugar level and that untreated gestational diabetes nearly doubles a child's risk of becoming obese by age 5 to 7. The study also shows for the first time that by treating women with gestational diabetes, the childs risk of becoming obese is significantly reduced. In fact, children whose moms were treated for gestational diabetes had the same risk for becoming obese as children whose mothers had normal blood sugar levels.

Researchers at Kaiser Permanentes Center for Health Research (CHR) in Portland and Hawaii used the organizations integrated databases to analyze medical records of 9,439 mother-child pairs. The subjects were members of the health plan in Oregon, Washington and Hawaii and gave birth between 1995 and 2000. The authors found that treating gestational diabetes lowers the child's risk of becoming obese during childhood to the same levels of those pregnant mothers with normal blood sugar levels.

Gestational diabetes, the condition in which pregnancy triggers insulin resistance and raises the womans blood glucose level (hyperglycemia), affects up to 8 percent of pregnant women each year in the United States. The rate of childhood obesity in this country more than doubled in the last two decades, so much so that it is now one the nations fastest growing health conditions. Nearly 7 million overweight and obese children in the United States today will grow up to become overweight or obese adults.........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


August 1, 2007, 9:30 PM CT

Rise of Obesity Exacerbated by "Social Multiplier"

Rise of Obesity Exacerbated by
As per a new study in Economic Inquiry, an individual's body weight depends not just on physiology and economic circumstances, but also on average body weight of the population at large. The study is the first to quantitatively model body weight distribution based on the combined outcome of economic, biological and social influences.

The findings complement those of a recent, high profile study that found direct evidence of social contagion of obesity within social networks. Eventhough Burke and Heiland studied trends in the aggregate weight distribution, rather than following specific individuals over time, the evidence of person-to-person contagion provides strong support for their modeling approach.

"Behavior governing weight depends not just on health considerations but also on the desire to appear normal and attractive," say authors Mary Burke and Frank Heiland. As a result, any change that causes average weight to increase, such as a decline in food prices, will lead to additional weight increases because the weight level considered "normal" will rise. This is an example of a "social multiplier" effect. The authors find that their integrated model, describing the effects of economic and social change on a physiologically heterogeneous population, does a better job of explaining changes in the weight distribution over the past thirty years than do models based on economic change alone.........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


August 1, 2007, 8:57 PM CT

Diagnosing obesity prompts action

Diagnosing obesity prompts action
Mayo Clinic physicians have identified that simply being diagnosed as obese increases a patients likelihood of establishing a therapy plan with their physician, a crucial step in improving health. Its a significant finding, because obesity is a growing worldwide epidemic and the second leading cause of preventable death in developing countries.

Reported in the recent issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, the article reveals that an obesity diagnosis is the strongest predictor of obesity management. Mayo Clinic physicians reviewed the records of 2,543 obese patients treated over a one-year period.

Only one in five patients had their obesity documented and a disease management plan made, the studys authors say. But those patients who were diagnosed as obese had a 2.5 times higher chance of forming a weight loss management plan than if they hadnt been diagnosed.

Warren Thompson, M.D., a Mayo Clinic internist from the Department of Preventive Medicine, says physicians should be more proactive in discussing obesity with their patients and patients should initiate the conversation if their weight concerns them. The ramifications are far-reaching for improving the health of those living with obesity, which is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Even a small reduction in an obese persons weight improves quality of life, reduces morbidity and results in lower health care use and medical costs.........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


July 23, 2007, 6:09 PM CT

Obese girls less likely to attend college

Obese girls less likely to attend college
Obese girls are half as likely to attend college as non-obese girls, as per a new study from The University of Texas at Austin.

The study also shows obese girls are even less likely to enter college if they attend a high school where obesity is relatively uncommon. The findings are reported in the recent issue of the journal Sociology of Education.

The study tracked nearly 11,000 American adolescents, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

"Obesity has been identified as a serious public health issue, but these results indicate the harmful effects extend far beyond physical health," said Robert Crosnoe, author of the study and a sociologist at the university.

Crosnoe suggests many mental health and behavioral issues seem to play a significant role in keeping obese girls from enrolling in college. The study found obese girls were more likely to consider committing suicide, use alcohol and marijuana and have negative self-images.

The disconnect between obesity and college enrollment was more pronounced among non-whites and among girls whose parents did not graduate from college. Obese boys did not differ from their non-obese peers in college enrollment.

"That girls are far more vulnerable to the non-health risks of obesity reinforces the notion that body image is more important to girls' self-concept and that social norms have greater effects on the education of girls than boys," Crosnoe noted.........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


July 18, 2007, 9:41 PM CT

Food Cravings And Weight Management

Food Cravings And Weight Management
Accepting food cravings and keeping them in check may be an important component of weight management, as per findings from the first six-month phase of a calorie-restriction study conducted at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging (USDA HNRCA) at Tufts University. Supplemental results from the Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effects of Restricting Intake of Energy (CALERIE) trial provide new insights into food cravings, specific types of foods craved, and their role in weight control.

Cravings are really normal; almost everyone has them, says corresponding author Susan Roberts, PhD, director of the USDA HNRCAs Energy Metabolism Laboratory. At the start of the study, 91 percent of the participants reported having food cravings, which are defined as an intense desire to eat a specific food. Most people feel guilty about having food cravings, says Roberts, but the results of this study indicate that they are so normal that nobody needs to feel they are unusual in this respect.

In addition, the results indicate that cravings dont go away during dieting. In fact, 94 percent of the study participants reported cravings after six months of dieting. However,Roberts says, participants who lost a greater percentage of body weight gave in to their.........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


July 18, 2007, 9:39 PM CT

Exercise, exercise, rest, repeat

Exercise, exercise, rest, repeat
Taking a break in the middle of your workout may metabolize more fat than exercising without stopping, as per a recent study in Japan. Scientists conducted the first known study to compare these two exercise methodsexercising continually in one long bout versus breaking up the same workout with a rest period. The findings could change the way we approach exercise. Who wouldnt want to take a breather for that" .

A number of people believe prolonged exercise will be optimal in order to reduce body fat, but our study has shown that repetitions of shorter exercise may cause enhancements of fat mobilization and utilization during and after the exercise. These findings will be informative about the design of [future] exercise regimens, said lead researcher Kazushige Goto, Ph.D. Most people are reluctant to perform a single bout of prolonged exercise. The repeated exercise with shorter bouts of exercise will be a great help [in keeping up with fitness].

This finding is part of a study entitled Enhancement of fat metabolism by repeated bouts of moderate endurance exercise, found in the June 2007 edition of the Journal of Applied Physiology, which is published by the American Physiological Society. It was conducted by Kazushige Goto, of both the Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Tokyo, Japan and the Institute of Sports Medicine, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; Naokata Ishii, of the Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Tokyo, Japan; and Ayuko Mizuno and Kaoru Takamatsu, both of the Institute of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


Thu, 19 Jul 2007 00:24:26 GMT

Recipe Exchange

Recipe Exchange
If you love to cook and are always looking for new recipes to try out on your family you just may want to try The Recipe Book. The Recipe Book is full of recipes and people who love to exchange recipes. These people live to cook, or are just looking for a good recipe for dinner. Not only can you get good recipes but you can also learn about different ways of cooking what you already have.

This is the kind of social networking site you can get your teeth into. If you love to eat, or love to cook then you should check out and sign up with The Recipe Book. Meet other people that also love food and love to cook and exchange cooking ideas and recipes.

Of course, The Recipe Book is also a great sit for the parent who's looking for something to make for dinner, the wife or husband looking for something new to make to impress their spouse or the college kid just looking for something to make.

Posted by: Linda Roeder      Read more     Source


July 17, 2007, 10:56 PM CT

Rimonabant -- 20 Mg Dose Can Prevent Weight Gain

Rimonabant -- 20 Mg Dose Can Prevent Weight Gain
Using selective cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonists such as rimonabant at a dose of 20 mg per day can help people quit smoking, can help them to remain abstinent, and can help prevent the weight gain that so often accompanies attempts at stopping smoking. The lower dose of 5mg, however, was not shown to be effective, as per a Cochrane Systematic Review.

Smoking tobacco sends nicotine into the blood stream, and this chemical disrupts the endocannabinoid system, part of the hormonal control mechanism in the brain that controls energy balance and food intake. Over time the body alters the nature of its energy mechanism to compensate for this effect. Stopping smoking removes the nicotine and once again disturbs the mechanism, adding to the withdrawal symptoms and leaving a person prone to put on weight.

One potential way of preventing this is to take a drug that blocks the receptor that is involved in nicotines action in the brain the cannabinoid 1 receptor. These CB1 receptor antagonists could therefore form part of a therapeutic programme aimed at helping individuals quit smoking, eventhough this drug has still not been approved as a smoking cessation therapy in the USA or in Europe.

To see whether there was evidence that these receptor antagonists work two Cochrane Researchers, Kate Cahill who works at the Department of Primary Care in the University of Oxford and Michael Ussher who works at St Georges, University of London, searched the published and unpublished literature for relevant research projects. They found three trials that involved a total of 1567 smokers and 1661 people who had recently quit smoking. Analysing the data showed that the effect of the drug depended on the dose used:........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


July 17, 2007, 10:49 PM CT

Obesity: Lentils better than white bread for dieting

Obesity: Lentils better than white bread for dieting
You have a greater possibility of losing weight if you eat a diet that is high in foods like lentils that release energy slowly once they have been consumed, rather than one that is high in foods that rapidly release sugar into the blood stream such as white bread, a Cochrane Systematic Review has concluded.

When foods are eaten the body breaks them down into their components, and one component will be sugar. Different foods break down at different rates. Lentils, for instance, generate a long, gentle release of sugars, while foods like white bread send a sudden rush of sugar into the blood stream. Foods that release sugars rapidly are said to have a high glycaemic index those that release it slowly have a low glycaemic index.

A team of Cochrane Scientists set out to search for carefully conducted research trials that looked at the effects of eating high and low glycaemic index foods. They found six randomised controlled trials that involved a total of 202 participants. The trials ran for between five weeks and six months.

Their conclusion was that people eating low glycaemic index diets lost a mean of one kilogram more than those on similar energy high glycaemic index diets.

Low glycaemic index diets appear to be especially effective for people who are obese, says lead author Dr Diana Thomas, the Scientific Director of the Centre for Evidence Based Paediatrics Gastroenterology and Nutrition, in Westmead, Australia.........

Posted by: Evelyn      Read more         Source


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